Ven. In Verrem ("Against Verres") is a series of speeches made by Cicero in 70 BC, during the corruption and extortion trial of Gaius Verres, the former governor of Sicily.The speeches, which were concurrent with Cicero's election to the aedileship, paved the way for Cicero's public career.  Aspendum vetus oppidum etnobile in Pamphylia scitisesse, plenissimum signorumoptimorum.You know that Aspendus is an ancientand noble town in Pamphylia, ve… intus canere: as discussed above, the expression refers to a technique of playing only that side of the cithara which is turned away from the audience: Cicero quips that Verres has outdone the activity represented by the statue by hiding it away in the innermost part of his house. 2 non modo apud nos sed apud exteras nationes Harl. (2008), Cicero as Evidence: A Historian’s Commentary, Oxford, 15-9. This nuance, however, which Cicero does not explicitly emphasize in the text itself, would only have been apparent to those members of Cicero’s audience familiar with the Greek proverb, and it is by no means certain that all (or any) of them were (see also next note, de quo saepe audistis). ... Cicero In Verrem 2.1, 53-58 andyjkeen. About sixty of the 110 days he had available, he spent on a trip to Sicily, priding himself on ‛the speed of his return’ (Ver. 22Cicero’s report of Verres’ looting of artworks and his narrative of the Lampsacus affair are both fraught with pathos, meant to generate indignation, if not downright outrage, at Verres’ conduct. He is entered under his nomen gentile ’Tullius, Marcus Cicero’ See Morwood (1999) 149 for a brief introduction to Roman names. For Classics teachers. The Governor and his Entourage in the Self-Image of the Roman Republic’, in R. Laurence and J. Berry (eds. This may sound perverse, but Cicero was an absolute genius when it came to the ‛tactical’ (mis-)representation of evidence. ; 82: Nolite... cogere,... nisi vos vindicatis! Many, but by no means all, cases that came before the quaestio de repetundis involved the exploitation of provincial subjects by Roman magistrates. Alliteration of vi- [vi et virtute] The two alliterated words, vi et virtute, are both very masculine words, meaning force and virtue, and the repeated vi- sound being associated with these words draws attention to the qualities of Publius which Cicero is trying to present. 15The first speech intended for the second hearing (Ver. hoc signum … et illud … nullum … signum … omnia: The sentence explains what happened to the richness of the city. Aspendioi kitharistai – that is, cithara-players of Aspendos – were known for their custom of playing the instrument, designed for both hands, with their left hand only, which was placed between the cithara and the player (hence intus), without using the right hand that held the plectron and was placed ‘outside’, facing the audience. These included the nomination of Verres’ former quaestor Quintus Caecilius Niger as a rival prosecutor, which meant that Cicero had to argue for the right to bring Verres to justice in a preliminary hearing (he obviously won). upon the death of King Attalus III of Pergamum. 5428 (A. D. 1470): non modo Romae sed et (etiam Halm) apud ext. Betreff des Beitrags: Cicero, In Verrem 1, 2-4. 7This is not to say that Verres was a particularly delightful human being. Pseudo-Asconius’ commentary on this passage is worth quoting in full since it brings out an otherwise obscure nuance of Cicero’s text:45, cum canunt citharistae, utriusque manus funguntur officio. Cicero, Against Verres, 2.1.53–86. True, consistency of character was an important argument in Roman law courts – anyone who could be shown to have a criminal record was considered more likely to have perpetrated the crime for which he was on trial, whereas an unblemished past could be marshalled in support of a plea of innocence. . Some cite the five speeches designed for the second actio as 2Ver. Yet while it is the centre of Ver. And in § 76, Cicero describes the public execution of Philodamus and his son in the city of Laodicea as a tragic spectacle, matching the bestial cruelty (crudelitas) of the Roman officials Verres and Dolabella against the humanitas (humanity) and the family-values of the condemned. Flower (ed. ‛By chance’ (casu), a great number of embassies from the towns Verres had ravaged happened to be in Rome at the time, and Cicero describes heart-wrenching scenes of Greek ambassadors setting eyes on long lost treasures, often statues of gods and goddesses of profound religious value and significance, breaking down on the spot, in public, in worship and tears. 30 The classic treatment is Badian, E. (1972), Publicans and Sinners. 30Verres stood trial in the so-called quaestio de repetundis. ; 72: andite, qnaeso, indices et... miseremini... et ostendite...! ), Cultural Identity in the Roman Empire, London, 10-24. Latin Texts & Translations. The Content of Cic. The sight, so Cicero, even moved the presiding Roman magistrate Nero to tears – precisely the sort of response he wishes to generate in his present audience as well, grounded in sympathy and compassion for Verres’ victims and righteous anger at his abuse of power and violation of Roman values. Conversely, he makes a damning reference to Roman money-lenders active in the region and their unscrupulous greed (§ 74). 34 Lictors carried the fasces, a bundle of wooden sticks that symbolized the power of the office both domi and militiae (in the latter sphere, the fasces contained an axe). More general studies include Corbeill, A. Rome and the Mediterranean in the Late Republic, 4.1 Rome’s military conquest of Greece and Asia Minor, http://books.openedition.org/obp/docannexe/image/196/img-1.jpg, Suggérer l'acquisition à votre bibliothèque. Adresse : 40 Devonshire Road CB1 2BL Cambridge United Kingdom. We encounter: 29In addition to provincial governors and their staff, Cicero also mentions Romans who had come to Asia independently to pursue business interests. The driving forces and motivations behind Rome’s imperial expansion have been the subject of much controversial debate.28 But whatever the intent, by the time of the Verrines, the rise of Rome from a town on the Tiber to the centre of an empire that spanned the entire Mediterranean world was by and large complete. Cicero also knows how to underscore the reliability of his two prime witnesses: P. Tettius and C. Varro, who both served on the staff of Nero (§ 71). The Trial of Verres and Cicero’s Set of Speeches against Verres, 4. Cicero, Against Verres, 2.1.53-86 : Latin text with introduction, study questions, commentary and English translation. Many more detailed accounts of the circumstances of the trial exist than the bare-bone coverage provided here. In a society that placed a premium on esteem for magistrates, this would have meant a powerful boost to Verres’ cause. The evidence is murky. How would you describe his interaction with the senators sitting in judgement. Par auteurs, Par personnes citées, Par mots clés, Par dossiers, Their staff or subordinates, some of whom with official or semi-official designations: thus Verres was a legate of Dolabella; and Cicero’s two witnesses Tettius and Varro were part of Nero’s staff in Asia: the former as a so-called. (2008), ’Cicero and the Citadel of the Allies’, in Cicero as Evidence: A Historian’s Companion, Oxford, 81-100. artificio art/craft/trade; skill/talent/craftsmanship; art work; method/trick; technology. It is therefore unwise to take anything he says about the character of any of his seemingly sociopathic villains at face value – including Verres. Yet after the so-called ‛First Illyrian War’ (229 BC) matters proceeded quickly. A good account of educational practices in the late Roman republic can be found in Corbeill, A. Read "Cicero, Against Verres, 2.1.53–86 Latin Text with Introduction, Study Questions, Commentary and English Translation" by Ingo Gildenhard available from Rakuten Kobo. Latin Cicero In Verrem 2.1 Chapter 53 Translation [Click Info tab for entire description] Hello! Iunt. hoc dīcō, nūllum tē Aspendī signum, Verrēs, relīquisse, omnia ex fānīs, ex locīs pūblicīs, palam, spectantibus omnibus, plaustrīs ēvecta exportātaque esse. Get this from a library! (2009), ’Cicero, Domestic Politics, and the First Action of the Verrines’, Classical Antiquity 28, 101-37. Non dicam illinc hoc signum ablatum esse et illud. In addition, the portion of text under consideration here includes two paragraphs that are especially designed to appeal to the emotions. I. Gildenhard, Cicero, Against Verres, 2.1.53–86: Latin Text with Introduction, Study Questions, Commentary and English Translation, OpenBook Publishers (www.openbookpublishers.com), Cambridge, 2011. The speech of M. T. Cicero as the advocate of P. Quinctius. Vérifiez si votre institution a déjà acquis ce livre : authentifiez-vous à OpenEdition Freemium for Books. Both monographs are excellent pieces of scholarship as well as highly entertaining reads. 2.1.53-86 can serve as an excellent point of departure for branching out into Roman history and culture, especially the imperial culture of the late republic and themes to do with the imperial expansion of Rome across the Mediterranean world, in particular the Greek East. Examples of minor characters include envoys (legati) from Asia and Achaia (§ 59), Ianitor, Verres’ host in Lampsacus (§§ 63-4), the Roman citizens who were in Lampsacus for business reasons (§ 69), the Roman creditors of the Greeks (§ 73), one of whom acts as accuser of Philodamus (§ 74), and the praefecti and tribuni militares of Dolabella (§ 73). 2After the conclusion of the proceedings, Cicero published the set of speeches he had given in the context of prosecuting Verres as well as those he had prepared for delivery – ‛prepared for delivery’ because the case came to a premature end before the speeches could be delivered. Likewise, there was the prospect of a more favourable jury (that is, one more liable to corruption) since several of the chosen jury members were due to leave Rome in 69 BC to take up offices, ruling them out of jury duty.12 At one point, when it looked as if the ploy were to succeed, a third brother, L. Caecilius Metellus, who had taken over the governorship of Sicily from Verres as pro-praetor, tried to intimidate the Sicilians against giving testimony against Verres, boasting somewhat prematurely that Verres’ acquittal was certain and that it was in the Sicilians’ own interest not to cause difficulties. Jahrhundert v. Chr. And even individuals or groups that only make a cameo appearance in his text have a distinct (if often one-sided) identity and personality profile that enables the audience to relate to them. Jahrhundert n. Book 2 1 Book 2 2 Book 2 3 Book 2 4 Book ... 1. Throughout the Verrines (though not in the passage under consideration here) Cicero plays on a sense of constitutional crisis.38 It was part of a larger strategy ‛to make Verres’ guilt matter’, not least for purposes of self-promotion.39. He was the best orator Rome produced, authored a large number of rhetorical and philosophical works, and also distinguished himself as a poet (though few of his verses have survived). 23Ver. Time was precious: he was aware of the fact that the defence wanted to delay the trial until the following year. Atque etiam illum Aspendium citharistam, dē quō saepe audīstis id quod est Graecīs hominibus in prōverbiō, quem omnia ‘intus canere’ dīcēbant, sustulit et in intimīs suīs aedibus posuit, ut etiam illum ipsum suō artificiō superāsse videātur. Note also the crescendo from one accusative object (omnia) to two prepositional phrases in the ablative, the second with an attribute (ex fanis, ex locis publicis), to three phrases indicating modalities of removal: palam (an adverb), spectantibus omnibus (an ablative absolute), plaustris (an instrumental ablative). 24While Rome stood in contact with the wider, Greek-dominated world of the Mediterranean from early on (witness the legend of Aeneas arriving in Italy after the destruction of Troy, as preliminary step towards the foundation of the city), it had no military presence in the Greek East until the end of the third century BC. 1 I follow the practice of the Oxford Latin Dictionary in referring to the speeches, but reference s ; 2 Settle, J. N. (1962), The publication of Cicero’s orations, Diss. 37 Brunt, P. A. The greatest effort goes of course into his characterization of Verres. 2.1 deals with the first three parts of this fourfold division (quadripertita distributio), Ver. 25 For Cicero’s tendency to split his personnel into the good and the bad and to characterize accordingly see Gildenhard (2011) 74-98 (’The good, the bad, and the in-between’). In 167 BC, the Greek historian Polybius considered Rome’s conquest of Greece (and the known world more generally) an accomplished fact. I hope this is useful to those of you teaching or soon to teach this text. (1993), Imperium Romanum. Hortensius, Cicero’s opponent, at the time; cf. ), Cicero the Advocate, Oxford, 187-213. For details, see Vasaly, A. Cicero, Against Verres, 2.1.53 - 86 Latin text with introduction, study questions, commentary and English translation. search; report a problem; Please refresh the home page in your browser! 8 See Pliny the Elder, Natural History 34.6; Seneca the Elder, Suasoriae 6.24 (citing a brilliant passage from Asinius Pollio’s history, in which the Caesarian contrasts the ’brave death’ of Verres with the pitiable death of Cicero, in the context of an ingeniously malicious appraisal of Cicero’s character overall); and Lactantius, Divine Institutes 2.4.37. Cicero’s version of what happened at Lampsacus is the centrepiece of the first oration he prepared for the second hearing (i.e. 24 On ethopoiea: Gildenhard (2011) 20-22 with much further bibliography. 21 From among the large number of books on ancient rhetoric available, I recommend Habinek, T. (2005), Ancient Rhetoric and Oratory, Malden, Mass., as both stimulating and concise. Ver. The passage under discussion here is no exception. It is thus … As already mentioned, Verres and his supporters tried to prolong the trial until the following year. Verres’ legateship in the Greek East fell into a period marked by much unrest across the entire region. In 70 BC Cicero, who had served as quaestor in Sicily five years previously, was commissioned by the Sicilians to prosecute the island's former governor, Gaius Verres, for corruption.First he had to fight for the right to deliver the prosecution instead of Quintus Caecilius Niger, a client of Verres who would likely have neutered the case against him.